The Epic of Gilgamesh

He washed out his marred hair and cleaned up his equipment(?),

shaking out his locks down over his back,

throwing off his dirty clothes and putting on clean ones.

He wrapped himself in regal garments and fastened the sash.

When Gilgamesh placed his crown on his head,

a princess Ishtar raised her eyes to the beauty of Gilgamesh.

“Come along, Gilgamesh, be you my husband,

to me grant your lusciousness.’

Be you my husband, and I will be your wife.

I will have harnessed for you a chariot of lapis lazuli and gold,

with wheels of gold and ‘horns’ of electrum(?).

It will he harnessed with great storming mountain mules!

Come into our house, with the fragrance of cedar.

And when you come into our house the doorpost(?) and throne dais(?)’will kiss your feet.

Bowed down beneath you will be kings, lords, and princes.

The Lullubu people’ will bring you the produce of the mountains and countryside as tribute.

Your she-goats will bear triplets, your ewes twins,

your donkey under burden will overtake the mule,

your steed at the chariot will be bristling to gallop,

your ax at the yoke will have no match.”

Gilgamesh addressed Princess Ishtar saying:

“What would I have to give you if I married you!

Do you need oil or garments for your body! Do you lack anything for food or drink!

I would gladly feed you food fit for a god,

I would gladly give you wine fit for a king,

… may the street(?) be your home(?), may you be clothed in a garment,

and may any lusting man (?) marry you!

…an oven who… ice,

a half-door that keeps out neither breeze nor blast,

a palace that crushes down valiant warriors,

an elephant who devours its own covering,

pitch that blackens the hands of its bearer,

a waterskin that soaks its bearer through,

limestone that buckles out the stone wall,

a battering ram that attracts the enemy land,

a shoe that bites its owner’s feet!

Where are your bridegrooms that you keep forever’

Where is your ‘Little Shepherd’ bird that went up over you!

See here now, I will recite the list of your lovers.

Of the shoulder (?) … his hand,

Tammuz, the lover of your earliest youth,

for him you have ordained lamentations year upon year!

You loved the colorful ‘Little Shepherd’ bird

and then hit him, breaking his wing, so

now he stands in the forest crying ‘My Wing’!

You loved the supremely mighty lion,

yet you dug for him seven and again seven pits.

You loved the stallion, famed in battle,

yet you ordained for him the whip, the goad, and the lash,

ordained for him to gallop for seven and seven hours,

ordained for him drinking from muddled waters,’

you ordained far his mother Silili to wail continually.

You loved the Shepherd, the Master Herder,

who continually presented you with bread baked in embers,

and who daily slaughtered for you a kid.

Yet you struck him, and turned him into a wolf,

so his own shepherds now chase him

and his own dogs snap at his shins.

You loved Ishullanu, your father’s date gardener,

who continually brought you baskets of dates,

and brightened your table daily.

You raised your eyes to him, and you went to him:

‘Oh my Ishullanu, let us taste of your strength,

stretch out your hand to me, and touch our vulva.

Ishullanu said to you:

‘Me! What is it you want from me!

Has my mother not baked, and have I not eaten

that I should now eat food under contempt and curses

and that alfalfa grass should be my only cover against

the cold?

As you listened to these his words

you struck him, turning him into a dwarf(?),

and made him live in the middle of his (garden of) labors,

where the mihhu do not go up, nor the bucket of dates (?) down.

And now me! It is me you love, and you will ordain for me as

for them!”

When Ishtar heard this, in a fury she went up to the heavens,

going to Anu, her father, and crying,

going to Anrum, her mother, and weeping:

“Father, Gilgamesh has insulted me over and over,

Gilgamesh has recounted despicable deeds about me,

despicable deeds and curses!”

Anu addressed Princess Ishtar, saying: “What is the matter?

Was it not you who provoked King Gilgamesh?

So Gilgamesh recounted despicable deeds about you,

despicable deeds and curses!”

Ishtar spoke to her father, Anu, saying:

“Father, give me the Bull of Heaven,

so he can kill Gilgamesh in his dwelling.

If you do not give me the Bull of Heaven,

I will knock down the Gates of the Netherworld,

I will smash the door posts, and leave the doors flat down,

and will let the dead go up to eat the living!

And the dead will outnumber the living!”

Anu addressed princess Ishtar, saying:

“If you demand the Bull of Heaven from me,

there will be seven years of empty husks for the land of Uruk.

Have you collected grain for the people!

Have you made grasses grow for the animals?”

Ishtar addressed Anu, her father, saying:

“I have heaped grain in the granaries for the people,

I made grasses grow for the animals,

in order that they might eat in the seven years of empty husks.

I have collected grain for the people,

I have made grasses grow for the animals.”

When Anu heard her words, he placed the noserope of the Bull of Heaven in her hand.

Ishtar led the Bull of Heaven down to the earth.

When it reached Uruk It climbed down to the Euphrates…

At the snort of the Bull of Heaven a huge pit opened up,

and 100 Young Men of Uruk fell in.

At his second snort a huge pit opened up,

and 200 Young Men of Uruk fell in.

At his third snort a huge pit opened up,

and Enkidu fell in up to his waist.

Then Enkidu jumped out and seized the Bull of Heaven by its horns.

the Bull spewed his spittle in front of him,

with his thick tail he flung his dung behind him (?).

Enkidu addressed Gilgamesh, saying:

“My friend, we can be bold(?) …

How shall we respond…

My friend, I saw…

And my strength…

I will rip out…

I and you, we must share (?)

I shall grasp the Bull

I will fill my hands (?) ..

In front…

between the nape, the horns, and… thrust your sword.”

Enkidu stalked and hunted down the Bull of Heaven.

He grasped it by the thick of its tail

and held onto it with both his hands (?),

while Gilgamesh, like an expert butcher,

boldly and surely approached the Bull of Heaven.

Between the nape, the horns, and… he thrust his sword.

After they had killed the Bull of Heaven,

they ripped out its heart and presented it to Shamash.

They withdrew bowing down humbly to Shamash.

Then the brothers sat down together.

Ishtar went up onto the top of the Wall of Uruk-Haven,

cast herself into the pose of mourning, and hurled her woeful curse:

“Woe unto Gilgamesh who slandered me and killed the Bull of

Heaven!”

When Enkidu heard this pronouncement of Ishtar,

he wrenched off the Bull’s hindquarter and flung it in her face:

“If I could only get at you I would do the same to you!

I would drape his innards over your arms!”

Ishtar assembled the (cultic women) of lovely-locks, joy-girls, and harlots,

and set them to mourning over the hindquarter of the Bull.

Gilgamesh summoned all the artisans and craftsmen.

(All) the artisans admired the thickness of its horns,

each fashioned from 30 minas of lapis lazuli!

Two fingers thick is their casing(?).

Six vats of oil the contents of the two

he gave as ointment to his (personal) god Lugalbanda.

He brought the horns in and hung them in the bedroom of the family

head (Lugalbanda?).

They washed their hands in the Euphrates,

and proceeded hand in hand,

striding through the streets of Uruk.

The men of Uruk gathered together, staring at them.

Gilgamesh said to the palace retainers:

“Who is the bravest of the men)

Who is the boldest of the males!

Gilgamesh is the bravest of the men,

the boldest of the males!

She at whom we flung the hindquarter of the Bull of Heaven in

anger,

Ishtar has no one that pleases her… in the street (?)

Gilgamesh held a celebration in his palace.

The Young Men dozed off, sleeping on the couches of the night.

Enkidu was sleeping, and had a dream.

He woke up and revealed his dream to his friend.

Reference:

http://www.ancienttexts.org/library/mesopotamian/gilgamesh/tab6.htm

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Inanna’s Descent to the Nether World

Ascending From the Nether World

Inanna Ascending From the Nether World

From the “great above” she set her mind toward the “great below,

The goddess, from the “great above” she set her mind toward the “great below,”

Inanna, from the “great above” she set her mind toward the “great below.”

My lady abandoned heaven, abandoned earth,
To the nether world she descended,
Inanna abandoned heaven, abandoned earth,
To the nether world she descended,
Abandoned lordship, abandoned ladyship,
To the nether world she descended.

In Erech she abandoned Eanna,
To the nether world she descended,
In Badtibira she abandoned Emushkalamma,
To the nether world she descended,
In Zabalam she abandoned Giguna,
To the nether world she descended,
In Adab she abandoned Esharra,
To the nether world she descended,
In Nippur she abandoned Baratushgarra,
To the nether world she descended,
In Kish she abandoned Hursagkalamma,
To the nether world she descended,
In Agade she abandoned Eulmash,
To the nether world she descended.

The seven divine decrees she fastened at the side,
She sought out the divine decrees, placed them at her hand,
All the decrees she set up at (her) waiting foot,
The shugurra, the crown of the plain, she put upon her bead,
Radiance she placed upon her countenance,
The . . . rod of lapis lazuli she gripped in (her) hand,
Small lapis lazuli stones she tied about her neck,
Sparkling . . . stones she fastened to her breast,
A gold ring she gripped in her band,
A . . . breastplate she bound about her breast,
All the garments of ladyship she arranged about her body,
. . . ointment she put on her face. p. 89

Inanna walked toward the nether world,
Her messenger Ninshubur walked at her side,
The pare Inanna says to Ninshubur:
“O (thou who art) my constant support,
My messenger of favorable words,
My carrier of supporting words,
I am now descending to the nether world.

“When I shall have come to the nether world,
Fill heaven with complaints for me,
In the assembly shrine cry out for me,
In the house of the gods rush about for me,
Lower thy eye for me, lower thy mouth for me,
With . . . lower thy great . . . for me,
Like a pauper in a single garment dress for me,
To the Ekur, the house of Enlil, all alone direct thy step.

“Upon thy entering the Ekur, the house of Enlil,
Weep before Enlil:
‘O father Enlil, let not thy daughter be put to death in the nether world,
Let not thy good metal be ground up into the dust of the nether world,
Let not thy good lapis lazuli be broken up into the stone of the stone-worker,
Let not thy boxwood be cut up into the wood of the wood-worker,
Let not the maid Inanna be put to death in the nether world.’

“If Enlil stands not by thee in this matter, go to Ur.

“In Ur upon thy entering the house of the . . . of the land,
The Ekishshirgal, the house of Nanna,
Weep before Nanna:
‘O Father Nanna, let not thy daughter be put to death in the nether world,
Let not thy good metal be ground up into the dust of the nether world,
Let not thy good lapis lazuli be broken up into the stone of the stone-worker,
Let not thy boxwood be cut up into the wood of the wood-worker,
Let not the maid Inanna be put to death in the nether world.’

“If Nanna stands not by thee in this matter, go to Eridu. p. 90

“In Eridu upon thy entering the house of Enki,
Weep before Enki:
‘O father Enki, let not thy daughter be put to death in the nether world,
Let not thy good metal be ground up into the dust of the nether world,
Let not thy good lapis lazuli be broken up into the stone of the stone-worker,
Let not thy boxwood be cut up into the wood of the wood-worker,
Let not the maid Inanna be put to death in the nether world.’

“Father Enki, the lord of wisdom,
Who knows the food of life, who knows the water of life,
He will surely bring me to life.”

Inanna walked toward the nether world,
To her messenger Ninshubur she says:
“Go, Ninshubur,
The word which I have commanded thee . . .”

When Inanna had arrived at the lapis lazuli palace of the nether world,
At the door of the nether world she acted evilly,
In the palace of the nether world she spoke evilly:
“Open the house, gatekeeper, open the house,
Open the house, Neti, open the house, all alone I would enter.”

Neti, the chief gatekeeper of the nether world,
Answers the pure Inanna:
“Who pray art thou?”

“I am the queen of heaven, the place where the sun rises.”

“If thou art the queen of heaven, the place where the sun rises,
Why pray hast thou come to the land of no return?
On the road whose traveller returns not how has thy heart led thee?”

The pure Inanna answers him:
“My elder sister Ereshkigal,
Because her husband, the lord Gugalanna, had been killed,
To witness the funeral rites,
. . .; so be it.”

Neti, the chief gatekeeper of the nether world,
Answers the pure Inanna:
Stay, Inanna, to my queen let me speak,
To my queen Ereshkigal let me speak . . . let me speak.” p. 91

Neti, the chief gatekeeper of the nether world,
Enters the house of his queen Ereshkigal and says to her:
“O my queen, a maid,
Like a god . . .,
The door . . .,
. . .,
In Eanna . . .,
The seven divine decrees she has fastened at the side,
She has sought out the divine decrees, has placed them at her hand,
All the decrees she has set up at (her) waiting foot,
The shugurra, the crown of the plain, she has put upon her head,
Radiance she has placed upon her countenance,
The . . . rod of lapis lazuli she has gripped in (her) hand,
Small lapis lazuli stones she has tied about her neck,
Sparkling . . . stones she has fastened to her breast,
A gold ring she has gripped in her hand,
A . . . breastplate she has bound about her breast,
All her garments of ladyship she has arranged about her body,
. . . ointment she has put on her face.”

Then Ereshkigal . . .,
Answers Neti, her chief gatekeeper:
“Come, Neti, chief gatekeeper of the nether world,
Unto the word which I command thee, give ear.
Of the seven gates of the nether world, open their locks,
Of the gate Ganzir, the ‘face’ of the nether world, define its rules;
Upon her (Inanna’s) entering,
Bowed low . . . let her . . .”

Neti, the chief gatekeeper of the nether world,
Honored the word of his queen.
Of the seven gates of the nether world, he opened their locks,
Of the gate Ganzir, the ‘face’ of the nether world, he defined its rules.
To the pure Inanna he says:
“Come, Inanna, enter.”

Upon her entering the first gate,
The shugurra, the “crown of the plain” of her head, was removed.
What, pray, is this?”
“Extraordinarily, O Inanna, have the decrees of the nether world been perfected,
O Inanna, do not question the rites of the nether world.” p. 92

Upon her entering the second gate,
The . . . rod of lapis lazuli was removed.
What, pray, is this?”
“Extraordinarily, O Inanna, have the decrees of the nether world been perfected,
O Inanna, do not question the rites of the nether world.”

Upon her entering the third gate,
The small lapis lazuli stones of her neck were removed.
What, pray, is this?”
“Extraordinarily, O Inanna, have the decrees of the nether world been perfected,
O Inanna, do not question the rites of the nether world.”

Upon her entering the fourth gate,
The sparkling . . . stones of her breast were removed.
What, pray, is this?”
“Extraordinarily, O Inanna, have the decrees of the nether world been perfected,
O Inanna, do not question the rites of the nether world.”

Upon her entering the fifth gate,
The gold ring of her hand was removed.
What, pray, is this?”
“Extraordinarily, O Inanna, have the decrees of the nether world been perfected,
O Inanna, do not question the rites of the nether world.”

Upon her entering the sixth gate,
The . . . breastplate of her breast was removed.
What, pray, is this?”
“Extraordinarily, O Inanna, have the decrees of the nether world been perfected,
O Inanna, do not question the rites of the nether world.”

Upon her entering the seventh gate,
All the garments of ladyship of her body were removed.
What, pray, is this?”
“Extraordinarily, O Inanna, have the decrees of the nether world been perfected,
O Inanna, do not question the rites of the nether world.”

Bowed low . . .

The pure Ereshkigal seated herself upon her throne,
The Anunnaki, the seven judges, pronounced judgment before her,
They fastened (their) eyes upon her, the eyes of death, p. 93
At their word, the word which tortures the spirit,
. . . ,
The sick woman was turned into a corpse,
The corpse was hung from a stake.

After three days and three nights had passed,
Her messenger Ninshubur,
Her messenger of favorable words,
Her carrier of supporting words,
Fills the heaven with complaints for her,
Cried for her in the assembly shrine,
Rushed about for her in the house of the gods,
Lowered his eye for her, lowered his mouth for her,
With . . . he lowered his great . . . for her,
Like a pauper in a single garment he dressed for her,
To the Ekur, the house of Enlil, all alone he directed his step.

Upon his entering the Ekur, the house of Enlil,
Before Enlil he weeps:
“O father Enlil, let not thy daughter be put to death in the nether world,
Let not thy good metal be ground up into the dust of the nether world,
Let not thy good lapis lazuli be broken up into the stone of the stone-worker,
Let not thy boxwood be cut up into the wood of the wood-worker,
Let not the maid Inanna be put to death in the nether world.”

Father Enlil answers Ninshubur:
“My daughter, in the ‘great above’ . . ., in the ‘great below’ . . .,
Inanna, in the ‘great above’ . . ., in the ‘great below’. . .,
The decrees of the nether world, the . . . decrees, to their place . . .,
Who, pray, to their place . . .?”

Father Enlil stood not by him in this matter, he went to Ur.

In Ur upon his entering the house of the . . . of the land,
The Ekishshirgal, the house of Nanna,
Before Nanna he weeps:
“O father Nanna, let not thy daughter be put to death in the nether world,
Let not thy good metal be ground up into the dust of the nether world, p. 94
Let not thy good lapis lazuli be broken up into the stone of the stone-worker,
Let not thy boxwood be cut up into the wood of the wood-worker,
Let not the maid Inanna be put to death in the nether world.”

Father Nanna answers Ninshubur:
“My daughter in the ‘great above’ . . ., in the ‘great below’ . . .,
Inanna, in the ‘great above’ . . ., in the ‘great below’ . . .,
The decrees of the nether world, the . . . decrees, to their place . . .,
Who, pray, to their place . . .?”

Father Nanna stood not by him in this matter, he went to Eridu.
In Eridu upon his entering the house of Enki,
Before Enki he weeps:
“O father Enki, let not thy daughter be put to death in the nether world,
Let not thy good metal be ground up into the dust of the nether world,
Let not thy good lapis lazuli be broken up into the stone of the stone-worker,
Let not thy boxwood be cut up into the wood of the wood-worker,
Let not the maid Inanna be put to death in the nether world.”

Father Enki answers Ninshubur:
“What now has my daughter done! I am troubled,
What now has Inanna done! I am troubled,
What now has the queen of all the lands done! I am troubled,
What now has the hierodule of heaven done! I am troubled.”

. . . he brought forth dirt (and) fashioned the kurgarru,
. . . he brought forth dirt (and) fashioned the kalaturru,
To the kurgarru he gave the food of life,
To the kalaturru he gave the water of life,
Father Enki says to the kalaturru and kurgarru:
. . . (nineteen lines destroyed)
Upon the corpse hung from a stake direct the fear of the rays of fire,
Sixty times the food of life, sixty times the water of life, sprinkle upon it,
Verily Inanna will arise.”

. . . (twenty-four(?) lines destroyed) p. 95

Upon the corpse hung from a stake they directed the fear of the rays of fire,
Sixty times the food of life, sixty times the water of life, they sprinkled upon it,
Inanna arose.

Inanna ascends from the nether world,
The Anunnaki fled,
(And) whoever of the nether world that had descended peacefully to the nether world;
When Inanna ascends from the nether world,
Verily the dead hasten ahead of her.

Inanna ascends from the nether world,
The small demons like . . . reeds,
The large demons like tablet styluses,
Walked at her side.
Who walked in front of her, being without . . ., held a staff in the hand,
Who walked at her side, being without . . ., carried a weapon on the loin.
They who preceded her,
They who preceded Inanna,
(Were beings who) know not food, who know not water,
Who eat not sprinkled flour,
Who drink not libated wine,
Who take away the wife from the loins of man,
Who take away the child from the breast of the nursing mother.

Inanna ascends from the nether world;
Upon Inanna’s ascending from the nether world,
Her messenger Ninshubur threw himself at her feet,
Sat in the dust, dressed in dirt.
The demons say to the pure Inanna:
“O Inanna, wait before thy city, we would bring him to thee.”

The pure Inanna answers the demons:
“(He is) my messenger of favorable words,
My carrier of supporting words,
He fails not my directions,
He delays not my commanded word,
He fills heaven with complaints for me,
In the assembly shrine he cried out for me,
In the house of the gods he rushed about for me,
He lowered his eye for me, he lowered his mouth for me,
With . . . he lowered his great . . . for me, p. 96
Like a pauper in a single garment he dressed for me,
To the Ekur, the house of Enlil,
In Ur, to the house of Nanna,
In Eridu, to the house of Enki (he directed his step),
He brought me to life.”

“Let us precede her, in Umma to the Sigkurshagga let us precede her.”

In Umma, from the Sigkurshagga,
Shara threw himself at her feet,
Sat in the dust, dressed in dirt.
The demons say to the pure Inanna:
“O Inanna, wait before thy city, we would bring him to thee.”

The pure Inanna answers the demons:
(Inanna’s answer is destroyed)

“Let us precede her, in Badtibira to the Emushkalamma let us precede her.”

In Badtibira from the Emushkalamma,
. . . threw themselves at her feet,
Sat in the dust, dressed in dirt.
The demons say to the pure Inanna:
“O Inanna, wait before thy city, we would bring them to thee.”

The pure Inanna answers the demons:
(Inanna’s answer destroyed; the end of the poem is wanting)

Reference:

http://www.sacred-texts.com/ane/sum/sum08.htm

Inanna (Ishtar)

Inanna/Ishtar, the Mesopotamian (Sumer, Babylon, Akkadia) goddess of (sexual) love, fertility and war.

Archetypes Embodied:

Lover

Shapeshifter — The Shapeshifter’s mask misleads the Hero by hiding a character’s intentions and loyalties

Enneagrams:minor archetypes – One: Reformer, Critic, Perfectionist [Anger]. This type focuses on integrity. Ones can be wise, discerning and inspiring in their quest for the truth. They also tend to dissociate themselves from their flaws and can become hypocritical and hyper-critical of others, seeking the illusion of virtue to hide their own vices. The One’s greatest fear is to be flawed and their ultimate goal is perfection.

The Soldier: Strong, willful, and looking for a fight, whether it be for profit, or to avenge the death of a loved one. One type of soldier encompasses those who seek to do justice in an evil and dark world: The rugged heroes who are strong in arm and wit, but have some fatal character flaw (dealing with the death of a loved one, pride or vanity, a weakness for damsels in distress…) that will be the end of them if they don’t figure out how to solve it.

Chinese Zodiac: Snake: High moral principles, mostly when applied to others. Sophisticated and charming. More than meets the eye.

Typically associated with:

Embodiment of Venus, the morning & evening star.  Often associated with the moon.

Forces of nature (rain and thunderstorms)

Ring-post/sacred knot

Symbol – 8 pointed star

Sacred number: 15

Sacred animal: lion (dragon)

Often pictured with long robes and a crown, naked with her arms folded across her chest, in a chariot pulled by lions, or in an embrace with her lover.

Resources:

Adams Leeming, D. (1990) The World of Myth (pp. 136-145). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

http://www.mythencyclopedia.com/Ho-Iv/Inanna.html

http://www.deliriumsrealm.com/delirium/articleview.asp?Post=116

http://www.crystalinks.com/sumergods1.html

http://www.listology.com/list/character-archetypes